Low levels of (5-15 fold) resistance to synthetic pyrethroid (SP) insecticides occur in unexposed apple orchard populations of the predatory mite, Amblyseius fallacis Garman. Permethrin resistance in one strain has been elevated 60--500 fold by selections in green- houses. Multiple resistances to DDT and azinphosmethyl are present and cross-resistance to SP-related compounds is generic at 10--250 fold. Permethrin resistance appears due to both hydrolytic esterase and knock down resistance mechanisms. Permethrin resistance appears to be polygenic and more recessive than dominant; it is unstable in the presence of high densities of susceptible immigrant types, but is reasonably stable in the presence of unselected, resistant immigrant types. Successful establishment of SP-resistant mites into SP-treated, commercial apple orchards was monitored using electrophoretic finger-printing techniques over a two year period. Aspects of management of resistance in A. fallacis to improve IPM are discussed.
Croft, B. A.
"Status and Management of Pyrethroid Resistance in the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius Fallacis (Acarina: Phytoseiidae),"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 16
, Article 4.
Available at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol16/iss1/4