The nesting and overwintering behavior of Podalonia luctuosa (Smith) was studied in New York and Colorado. Females provisioned shallow (ca. 2 cm deep), unicellular nests with a single cutworm (Noctuidae) during April, May, and July. Paralyzed prey were trans- ported on the ground and were cached on plants just above ground level. Prey weights averaged about 400 mg. The miltogrammine fly Hilarella hilarella Zetterstedt parasitized prey at both localities. From I to IO adult females were found to overwinter in burrows 0.5 m deep, which were dug in late summer and early fall. Collection data and field studies indicated that P. luctuosa is bivoltine in the NE U.S.
O'Brien, Mark F. and Kurczewski, Frank E.
"Ethology and Overwintering of Podalonia Luctuosa (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae),"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 15
, Article 6.
Available at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol15/iss4/6