Introduction: the problem of the iatrogenic lesions of the main biliary pathways is far from being completely clarified and still represents a serious surgical situation, during both open and laparoscopic surgeries. The outcome of these situations is closely linked with the actual moment of discovery of the lesion and the surgical methods for repairing such defects and implies a great number of options, such as reconstructive, derivative and substitutive techniques. Objectives: the goal of this paper is to present an algorithm of choices and their consequences for clinical conduit in the case of iatrogenic biliary lesions discovered in the course of open or laparoscopic procedures of the main biliary pathways, based on our experience. Material and method: We present a multicentric retrospective study of 53 cases of lesions following open and laparoscopic procedures, from a larger lot of 10.015 surgeries on extrahepatic biliary ducts recorded during a 40 years period of time, in 2 clinical hospitals. Out of these, 2127 interventions were strictly focused on the common bile duct, for various pathology. Conclusion: The choice of the optimum method is strictly correlated with the morphological nature of the lesion, which is different from one stage to the other, depending upon the moment of detection, and therefore have different surgical implications.

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