Acute upper gastrointestinal lesions have a multifactorial etiology but, regardless of the cause, they are related to mucosal barrier destruction. Since Helicobacter pylori induces a superficial chronic gastritis with the infiltration of neutrophils in the mucosa, it was speculated that Helicobacter pylori infection could also cause bleeding lesions. The diagnosis, the proper treatment and the revaluation of its effectiveness actually represent the prophylaxis of some diseases such as peptic ulcer, gastric lymphoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and gastric cancer. These diseases and their severe complications are life-threatening for the patient. Periodic renewal of the treatment and knowing the real causes of Helicobacter pylori resistance to various antibiotics must always be understood by the clinician. Although Helicobacter pylori treatment fails in about 20% of cases, moral support of the patient by the clinician, information about possible evolutional complications of Helicobacter pylori infection, and periodic evaluation of the patient during therapy, are important tools on which the therapeutic success depends.

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